Yes they can seize, cool and then run until they seize again, more than once. I've had a few engines come in the shop where people have done this. They get the engine so hot the oil will actually turn into something that looks like grease. Pull the drain plug and nothing comes out A bearing will seize then cool and loosen letting the engine run again. Have also seen rings pinch and after the engine cooled and rocked to free the piston/rings, run again. Heck I think 2 strokes were built to do it!
They can also hydro lock from fuel/coolant and seem seized and after the fluid has worked its way past the piston/rings run again.