Some of the harsher materials used to clean foam filters (ie gasoline, kerosene, etc) can break down the glue used to hold the sections of the filter together over time. But it's been my experience the filters are usually ready for replacement before it becomes a problem. But I wouldn't be surprised if there were others who clean their filters more often than I that might have another view.
i buy the spray on filter cleaner and get it real good. after i rinse it i give it a good dose of simple green and rinse again. after it dries overnight i use the spray on and rub and squeeze it real good. enough to coat it real good all the way through and squeeze the rest out.
i know some people say dont use gasoline, but it i always use it and its the best and cheapest. i rub it in with my hands then after the filter comes back to its origional color i rinse it throughly with water then let it dry. then i oil it and its good as new. i have not noticed any detoriation of the filter, you will be able to tell if its falling apart then replace it but that will be after many cleanings